HISTORY OF NEGRO SOLDIERS
OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST.
EDWARD A. JOHNSON,
Author of the Famous School History of the
Negro Race in America.
BY EDWARD A. JOHNSON, RALEIGH, N.C.
CONTENTS. (see last page for index to illustrations.)
The Cause of The War With Spain--The Virginius Affair--General Fitzhugh Lee--Belligerent Rights to Insurgents--Much Money and Time Spent by United States--Spain Tries to Appease Public Sentiment--Weyler "The Butcher"--Resolutions by Congress Favoring Insurgents--Insurgents Gain by--General Antonio Maceo--The Spirit of Insurgents at Maceo's Death--Jose Maceo--Weyler's Policy--Miss Cisneros' Rescue--Appeal for her--Spain and Havana Stirred by American Sentiment--Battle Ship Maine--Official Investigation of Destruction of--Responsibility for--Congress Appropriates $50,000,000 for National Defence--President's Message--Congress Declares War--Resolution Signed by President--Copy of Resolution Sent Minister Woodford--Fatal Step for Spain--American Navy.
Beginning of Hostilities--Colored Hero in the Navy.
Sergeant Major Pullen of Twenty-fifth Infantry Describes the Conduct of Negro Soldiers Around El Caney--Its Station Before the Spanish American War and Trip to Tampa, Florida--The Part it Took in the Fight at El Caney--Buffalo Troopers, the Name by Which Negro Soldiers are Known--The Charge of the "Nigger Ninth" on San Juan Hill.
Colonel Theodore B. Roosevelt on the Colored Soldiers--Colonel Roosevelt's Error--Jacob A. Riis Compliments Negro Soldiers-General Nelson A. Miles Compliments Negro Soldiers--Cleveland Moffitt Compliments the Negro Soldiers--President McKinley Promotes Negro Soldiers--General Thomas J. Morgan on Negro Officers.
Many Testimonials in Behalf of Negro Soldiers--A Southerner's Statement--Reconciliation--Charleston News and Courier--Good Marksmanship at El Caney--Their Splendid Courage; Fought Like Tigers-- Never Wavered--What Army Officers say--Acme of Bravery-Around Santiago--Saved the Life of his Lieutenant, but Lost his own--"Black Soldier Boys," New York Mail and Express--They Never Faltered--The Negro Soldier; His Good-heartedness--Mrs. Porter's Ride--Investment of Santiago and Surrender--Killed and Wounded.
No Color Line in Cuba--A Graphic Description--American Prejudice Cannot Exist There--A Catholic Priest Vouches for it--Colored Belles--War Began--Facts About Porto Rico.
List of Colored Regiments that did Active Service in the Spanish American War--A List of the Volunteer Regiments--Full Account of the Troubles of the Sixth Virginia--Comments on the Third North Carolina Regiment.
General Items of Interest to the Race--Miss Alberta Scott--Discovery of the Games Family--Colored Wonder on the Bicycle--Negro Millionaire Found at Last--Uncle Sam's Money Sealer--Paul Lawrence Dunbar, the Negro Poet--Disfranchisement of Colored Voters.
Some Facts About the Filipinos--Who Aguinaldo is--Facts from Felipe Agoncillo's Article.
Resume--Why the American Government Does not Protect its Colored Citizens-States Rights--Mobocracy Supreme--The Solution of the Negro Problem is Mainly in the Race's Own Hands--The South a Good Place for the Negro, Provided he can be Protected.
THE CAUSE OF THE WAR WITH SPAIN.
Many causes led up to the Spanish-American war. Cuba had been in a state of turmoil for a long time, and the continual reports of outrages on the people of the island by Spain greatly aroused the Americans. The "ten years war" had terminated, leaving the island much embarrassed in its material interests, and woefully scandalized by the methods of procedure adopted by Spain and principally carried out by Generals Campos and Weyler, the latter of whom was called the "butcher" on account of his alleged cruelty in attempting to suppress the former insurrection. There was no doubt much to complain of under his administration, for which the General himself was not personally responsible. He boasted that he only had three individuals put to death, and that in each of these cases he was highly justified by martial law.
FINALLY THE ATTENTION OF THE UNITED STATES was forcibly attracted to Cuba by the Virginius affair, which consisted in the wanton murder of fifty American sailors--officers and crew of the Virginius, which was captured by the Spanish off Santiago bay, bearing arms and ammunition to the insurgents--Captain Fry, a West Point graduate, in command.
Spain would, no doubt, have received a genuine American thrashing on this occasion had she not been a republic at that time, and President Grant and others thought it unwise to crush out her republican principles, which then seemed just budding into existence.
The horrors of this incident, however, were not out of the minds of the American people when the new insurrection of 1895 broke out. At once, as if by an electric flash, the sympathy of the American people was enlisted with the Insurgents who were (as the Americans believed) fighting Spain for their liberty. Public opinion was on the Insurgents' side and against Spain from the beginning. This feeling of sympathy for the fighting Cubans knew no North nor South; and strange as it may seem the Southerner who quails before the mob spirit that disfranchises, ostracises and lynches an American Negro who seeks his liberty at home, became a loud champion of the Insurgent cause in Cuba, which was, in fact, the cause of Cuban Negroes and mulattoes.
GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE, of Virginia, possibly the most noted Southerner of the day, was sent by President Cleveland to Havana as Consul General, and seemed proud of the honor of representing his