TIME OF LUTHER
FALL OF NAPOLEON.
FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.
JOHN LORD, A.M.,
LECTURER ON HISTORY.
CLAXTON, REMSEN & HAFFELFINGER;
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.
New York: D. APPLETON & CO. Boston: NICHOLS & HALL.
Cincinnati: ROBERT CLARKE & CO; WILSON, HINKLE & CO.
San Francisco: A. L. BANCROFT & CO.
Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. — Charleston, S. C.: J. M. Greer & Son; Edward Perry & Son. — Raleigh, N. C.: Williams & Lambeth. — Baltimore, Md.: Cushings & Bailey; W. J. C Dulaney & Co. — New Orleans, La.: Stevens & Seymour. — Savannah, Ga.: J. M. Cooper & Co. — Macon, Ga.: J. M. Boardman. — Augusta, Ga.: Thos. Richards & Son. — Richmond, Va.: Woodhouse & Parham.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.
In preparing this History, I make no claim to original and profound investigations; but the arrangement, the style, and the sentiments, are my own. I have simply attempted to condense the great and varied subjects which are presented, so as to furnish a connected narrative of what is most vital in the history of the last three hundred years, avoiding both minute details and elaborate disquisitions. It has been my aim to write a book, which should be neither a chronological table nor a philosophical treatise, but a work adapted to the wants of young people in the various stages of education, and which, it is hoped, will also prove interesting to those of maturer age; who have not the leisure to read extensive works, and yet who wish to understand the connection of great events since the Protestant Reformation. Those characters, institutions, reforms, and agitations, which have had the greatest influence in advancing society, only have been described, and these not to the extent which will satisfy the learned or the curious. Dates and names, battles and sieges, have not been disregarded; but more attention has been given to those ideas and to those men by whose influence and agency great changes have taken place. In a work so limited, and yet so varied, marginal references to original authorities have not been deemed necessary; but a list of standard and accessible authors is furnished, at the close of each chapter, which the young student, seeking more minute information, can easily consult. A continuation of this History to the present time might seem desirable; but it would be difficult to condense the complicated events of the last thirty years into less than another volume. Instead of an unsatisfactory compend, especially of subjects concerning which there are great differences of opinion, and considerable warmth of feeling, useful tables of important events are furnished in the Appendix. I have only to add, that if I have succeeded in remedying, in some measure, the defects of those dry compendiums, which are used for want of living histories; if I have combined what is instructive with what is entertaining; and especially if I shall impress the common mind, even to a feeble degree, with those great moral truths which history ought to teach, I shall feel that my agreeable labor is not without its reward.
Boston, October, 1849.
STATE OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY IN THE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH CENTURIES.
Revival of the Arts — Influence of Feudalism — Effects of Scholasticism — Ecclesiastical Corruptions — Papal Infallibility — The sale of Indulgences — The Corruptions of the Church — Necessity for Reform.
MARTIN LUTHER AND HIS ASSOCIATES.
The Early Life of Luther — Luther's Early Religious Struggles — The Ninety-Five Propositions — Erasmus — Melancthon — Leo X. — The Leipsic Disputation — Principles of the Leipsic Disputation — The Rights of Private Judgment — Luther's Elements of Greatness — Excommunication of Luther — The Diet of Worms — Imprisonment at Wartburg — Carlstadt — Thomas Münzer Ulric — Zwingle — Controversy between Luther and Zwingle — Diet of Augsburg — League of Smalcalde — Death and Character of Luther.
THE EMPEROR CHARLES V.
Charles V. — Spain and France in the Fifteenth Century — Wars between Charles and Francis. — Diet of Spires — Hostilities between Charles and Francis — African War — Council of Trent — Treachery of Maurice — Captivity of the Landgrave of Hesse — Heroism of Maurice — Misfortunes of Charles — Treaty of Passau — Character of Charles.
Rise of Absolute Monarchy — Henry VIII. — Rise of Cardinal Wolsey — Magnificence of Henry VIII. — Anne Boleyn — Queen Catharine — Disgrace and Death of Wolsey — More — Cranmer — Cromwell — Quarrel with the Pope — Suppression of Monasteries — Execution of Anne Boleyn — Anne of Cleves — Catharine Howard — Last Days of Henry — Death of Henry.
EDWARD VI. AND MARY.