class="t6 j">(ee) like ee in seen, as li (lee). In unaccented syllables, and before two consonants together, this i practically becomes the i in it or in wind; as ferminte (fehrr-min'teh)
| J, j
||(yo) always like y in yet, as jes (yehss), vojo (vo'yo), and never like j in judge, joke
||It should be remembered that j is always a consonant, with the sound of the English y in you. Of course, when j occurs at the end of a word or before a consonant, it practically unites with the preceding vowel to form a diphthong, and loses the full consonantal sound which it has before a vowel. Thus:
||Aj (ahy), like ah y in ah yes (almost like y in my); as kaj (kah'y), rajdi (rah'y-dee), krajono (krah-yo'no)
||Ej (ehy), like ay y in say yes; as plej (pleh'y, one syllable)
||Oj (oy), like oh y in oh yes (almost like oy in toy); as ranoj (rah'noy), kojno (koy'noh)
||Uj (ooy), like oo y in too young; as tuj (too'y, one syllable), prujno (proo'yno, two syllables)
||(zho) like s in vision or pleasure, or j in French jeune, j'ai; as ĵeti (zheh'tee)
||(ko) as in English
||(lo) as in English
||(mo) as in English
||(no) as in English
||(oh) like o in horse, not diphthongized, but pronounced purely and rather shortly, as bona (boh'nah NOT bow'nah), quite without the short oo-sound frequently heard with the English vowel in such words as note, boat. Its sound is almost equivalent to aw in caw, pronounced shortly and with the lips placed roundly as if for saying oh; as estonta (ess-tohn'tah)
||(po) as in English
||(ro) as in English, but sounded much more forcibly, and always with a trill as in singing; as korpo (kohr'po)
||(so) like s in say, as suno (soo'noh), and never as s in rose; as pesi (peh'see)
| Ŝ, ŝ
||(sho) like sh in show, she; as ŝipo (shee'poh)
||(to) as in English, but dentally—with tip of tongue placed on back of teeth instead of on front ridge of roof of mouth
||(oo) like oo in boot, as nubo (noo'boh); and never as u in mute or but
||(wo) is equivalent to the English w, and is produced by a partial bringing together of the lips. It practically only occurs after a or e
||(1) Aŭ. To say antaŭ, for instance, say "ahn'tah," and finish by bringing the lips slightly together to pronounce the ŭ (w). Similarly for laŭta (lah'w-tah). This sound is not exactly the English ou in house, but is just the au in the German Haus. The phonetic sign for aŭ, therefore is
||(2) Eŭ, as in Eŭropo (ehw-ro'poh), is pronounced with a similar closing of the lips after the eh-sound
||(vo) as in English
||(zo) as in English
In order to make the best progress in acquiring the words and sentences in the following pages, the student is recommended to learn a few at a time by repeating them aloud with the aid of the phonetic pronunciation in the third column.
Although the system of phonetics may seem a little cumbersome, practice will soon enable the student to pronounce the words easily and naturally. The following notes will be useful:—
1. Accent.—In Esperanto, every letter, whether vowel or consonant, is sounded. The accented syllable of a word is always the last but one. Thus, nobla (noh'blah), irado (ee-rah'do), telefono (teh-leh-foh'no), internacia (in-tehr-naht-see'ah), folio (fohlee'oh).
It should be borne in mind that j and ŭ are consonants, and do not, like the vowels, of themselves constitute a syllable. Thus, tiu (tee'oo, two syllables) and tiuj (tee'ooy, also two syllables), rajdi (rah'y-dee, not rah-ĭ'dee), antaŭ (ahn'tahw, not ahn-tah'ŏŏ).
2. The vowels, a, e, i, o, u, should in Esperanto be pronounced quite purely, and entirely without any drawling after-sound. Many English speakers diphthongize a, i, o, and pronounce late as "la-it," pale as "pa-il," paper as "pa-y-per," road as "row-d," etc. This habit of drawling the vowels, when transferred to Esperanto, thus: Mi ne povas bone paroli, mee'y nay'ee poh'ŏŏ-vah(r)ss boh'ŏŏ-nehy pah(r)-roh'ŏŏ-leey, immediately reveals the nationality of the speaker.
There is also an inclination to interpose an r-sound between la ("the") and a word beginning with a vowel, thus: la(r)ebleco instead of la