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كتاب "GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION" ، تأليف : اسامة محمد المرضي سليمان ، نقرأ من الكتاب :
The basic goals of the automotive industry; a high power, low specific fuel consumption, low emissions, low noise and better drive comfort. With increasing the vehicle number, the role of the vehicles in air pollution has been increasing significantly day by day. The environment protection agencies have drawn down the emission limits annually. Furthermore, continuously increasing price of the fuel necessitates improving the engine efficiency. Since the engines with carburetor do not hold the air fuel ratio close to the stoichiometric at different working conditions, catalytic converter cannot be used in these engines. Therefore these engines have high emission values and low efficiency. Electronic controlled Port Fuel Injection (PFI) systems instead of fuel system with carburetor have been used since 1980’s. In fuel injection systems, induced air can be metered precisely and the fuel is injected in the manifold to air amount. By using the lambda sensor in exhaust system, air/fuel ratio is held of stable value. Fuel systems without electronic controlled it is impossible to comply with the increasingly emissions legislation.